All food establishments have to perform own-checks concerning food safety etc. Read more about own-checks in food establishments.
All food establishments in Denmark must be either registered or approved by DVFA.
Inspections within the food sector are performed as a combination of several different actions, with inspection and guidance designed to help as many establishments as possible to understand and comply with the rules. Below is an overview of the various categories of controls performed by the DVFA within the food sector. Control of the companies' HACCP-plan is part of the general inspections within the food sector.
There is an individual risk characterization of all establishments based on five factors:
Consumer base, processes, products, activities, and vulnerable consumers.
The sum of the risk points places the food establishment in one of five risk groups: Very high, high, medium, low and ultra-low.
The type of establishment and the number of risk points decides if the establishments will belong to the group getting
- basic inspections by frequency or
- spot-check basic inspection
Basic inspections by frequency
Food establishments with a high number of risk points according to their activities get inspections after standard or elite frequencies.
This is typically the case for wholesale establishments producing food. Establishments producing and exporting animal products belong to this group.
The risk group determines the frequency of basic inspections.
The number of standard inspections vary from 4 per year to as and when needed. Slaughterhouses, fish product establishments and dairies typically get 4 basic inspections per year.
If the establishments has good compliance and get elite status the number can get reduced to elite frequencies, see more below.
Elite status can be given to establishments with a standard inspection frequency of 0.5 (i. e. inspection every second year), if they have received no sanctions on the last 4 inspection reports and no sanctions on inspection reports within the last 12 months. Establishments in the risk group very high can after one year with elite status achieve the further reduced elite-2 inspection frequency.
Spot-check basic inspection
Most food establishments like restaurants, supermarkets and wholesalers without production are not inspected by a fixed frequency. Instead, the establishments are appointed for control on a risk basis by the use of data analysis.
The data model uses machine learning technology to calculate establishments' risk of non-compliances based on historic control data.
Other basic inspections of special areas with fixed frequencies
Some activities are inspected with fixed frequencies. As examples can be mentioned:
Slaughtering (AM/PM inspections), organic food preparation etc., import and export
Starthelp or approval inspections
Starthelp is a notified inspection with extra time for guidance for new establishments. Some establishments will get the guidance at the approval inspection.
Campaign inspections focus on one or more subjects with more in-depth inspection and guidance.
The inspection campaigns are selected and planned for each year in a risk based manner.
See more here
Inspections as prioritized actions are risk-based and appointed on analysis of inspection results, evaluation of current problems that require extra focus etc. They can be aimed at a group of establishments on the basis of e.g. compliance or activities.
The prioritized actions are planned two times a year and if there is a sudden need for a prioritized action, this is possible.
Inspections after notifications
Upon receipt of a consumer notification, DVFA makes an assessment of whether an inspection should be carried out and how soon depending on the risk for food safety. This action also includes inspections in connection with withdrawal of products from the market and cases in relation to sickness.
DVFA will carry out two follow-up inspections of establishments who has been given a sanction
The first inspection is targeted the area for the non-compliance. The second inspection is a standard inspection.
Third party certification control scheme
If a food business has a third party certification and is placed in one of the risk groups low, middle, high or very high, it can apply to be part of a special control scheme. The scheme requires that the third party certification of the establishment's quality control system covers all food activities and food legislative areas (small exceptions are possible). Within the scheme the standard inspection frequency is reduced. The food inspectors use the information in the audit reports made by the certification bodies, during inspections.
Scheme for control of corporations
A corporation can sign up for a special control scheme. The scheme requires that the corporations' head quarter is responsible for and manages relevant parts of the quality control systems e.g. the HACCP plan. At the head quarter the inspections focus on e.g. procedures that the head quarter is responsible for, and inspections of the local establishments focus on e.g. implementation of the procedures. For corporations with basic inspections by standard or elite frequency the total number of these inspections can be reduced by 1/3 if the corporation as a whole has high compliance (few sanctions).
What is inspected?
The content of the inspections varies depending on e.g. the type of establishment, their activities and the type of inspection.
At a standard inspection the inspector will as a minimum check hygiene, own checks (HACCP) and registered activities.
Other relevant items will be controlled at inspections within certain time periods.
Samples for analysis are often taken by specialized samplers as part of laboratory projects – see more here.
Meat inspection takes place in all slaughterhouses in Denmark. No animal can be slaughtered and used for human consumption without prior inspection by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration.
Veterinarians and auxiliaries perform ante- and post-mortem controls. They also audit own-check programmes and other procedures, and inspect e.g. hygiene and animal welfare.
When an inspector discovers that an establishment violates the food law he or she can choose to use the following enforcements actions:
- No sanction. If a non-compliance is so small that it would be out of proportion to sanction, the inspector can give guidance instead.
- Injunction order
- Prohibitory order
- Administrative fine
- Reporting to the police
- Approval or registration withdrawn
The inspectors give the sanctions deemed necessary to ensure that the establishment corrects the non-compliance. If the establishment still fails to comply with the food law, the sanctioning is escalated to a more severe sanction.
Inspections are performed without prior warning
Inspections are with few exceptions carried out unannounced.
Guidelines on inspections in the food sector
See the guidelines on inspections in the food sectors from June 2020 translated into English:
Guidelines on inspection in the food sector
The guidelines were changed in May 2021, see new version and list of changes in Danish here:
Vejledning om Kontrolindsatser på fødevareområdet
Annex 1 Guidelines for planning inspections at slaughterhouses and wholesale meat control objects has been removed from the new version. DVFA has in relation to this made guidelines on planning of inspections in slaughterhouses (same planning system as for other wholesale establishment).
DVFA plans to translate the new version of the guidelines on inspection in the food sector into English.